A Discourse On Cyber Crime Against Women: Problems And Prospects

Priyanka Devi & Satish Kumar

Abstract

The worldwide transformation in the domain of education, health, transport, business, industrial technology, constructional development and comfortable human life was possible due to computer and internet operations. On the other hand they create many instant problems which affect each segments of social and personal life. In the era of developing communication technology primarily women are victimized by cyber delinquency. Reason behind the victimization of women is emotionally and psychologically pathetic behaviour. Secondly, it is the conservative social structure that women may not share it with anyone or they may not prefer to file complaint. Low computer knowledge, internet illiteracy rate in women is also one of the strong reasons of victimization. Its produce, online abuse is practically famous as a form of abuse or violence against women and girls, rather than as a form of communication. Emerging complexity in IT sector are Privacy infringement, unauthorized surveillance, cyber stalking, unauthorized access to data, to take revenge for broken love affairs, profit gaining by the way of leaking persons information to adult sites, reputation damage, emotional traumatizing, threat to physical security, illegal monetary gain, spouse allied frustration , arbitrary surveillance, offensive speech against women, obscene speech, sexually explicit expression, demeaning and lowering the modesty, trolling and bullying through social networking, emails, telephonic commutations instagram or another chat devices. IT Act and the Supreme Court is also considering the rights of the women especially in this matter. This paper presents important issues on the Security, Prevention, and Detection of Cyber Crime. This paper covers the theoretical knowledge of cyber-crime against women, its causes, effects, legal attitude of court and case laws. These analyses also find the solution to control the cyber-crime against women. Knowledge of rights and conscious legal attitude in women organize a high platform to her progress. Research paper will be contribute the knowledge and awareness to the society and serve the opportunity to women equal access the knowledge and information equivalent to man.

Introduction

Cyber frame is an instrument of digital communications and a vehicle of development in modern era. Besides its great significance it creates complications and is discouraging especially for girls and women’s like privacy infringement-emails, e-chats, hate speech, online grooming, harassed by offending phone calls, SMSs and MMSs, spoofing, sexually misbehavior, bullying, hacking, cyber stalking, transmitting morphing, obscene materials and sexual defamation, blackmailing misrepresentation and financial gain or espionage. By the youth cyber chatting forms close relationships, friendship and romance which substantially established in relationship. Eventually between cyber friendship, dating, and romance is the aggression in the relationship to commit a crime. The women victimization is primarily due to the reason behind their gender identity, apathetic behavior, lack of awareness, low online computer literacy rate, etc.. Intention to victimize Women is done with internet medium the failure to resolve the cases and still remains pending encourages the crime against women. Cyber-crime is not only infringing privacy but also infringes the right to expression and speech due to panic of cyber-crime. The cyber world in itself has a virtual reality where anyone can hide or even fake his identity, this gift of internet is used by the criminally minded to commit wrongful acts.

In India, cyber-crime and victimization in the cyber space had remained a subject of great trepidation, but lacks awareness. Bizarre combination of nature of attacks; ever changing trends of the victimization, limited knowledge about direct laws which address cyber-crimes in India and rights of victims in cases of cyber-attacks, contribute greatly towards forming a weird approach to cyber victimization scenario. There are millions of internet users in India now who are frequenting the cyber space on a regular basis for professional, commercial, socializing and educational purposes. Since the IT sector in India have seen a boom in the 1990’s, (which still continues), almost every household falling in the economic zone of moderate income groups to high income groups, have internet access at home and people from the age group of 13 to 70 years, are regularly using the internet either at home, or at work places, or at educational institutes, or at cyber cafes. But along with internet dependency, victimization of ‘cyber citizens’ and also of those who are not in the ‘internet’, have grown in an alarming rate, in spite of the fact that India has an exclusive legislation dedicated for information technology, e‐governance, ecommerce and also e‐socialization to a certain extent; this has hardly helped in curbing the ever increasing victimization of individuals in the cyber space in India. Sadly enough, less awareness brings in more victimization and cyber space victimization is no exception. In India, awareness of cyber victimization has remained limited to several informative and useful tips on how to save one’s personal computer and personal data from identity frauds, emotional blackmailers etc. [1]

The Paper consists following objectives:

  1. To identifies the cause and the patterns of women victimizations through Cyber-Space.
  2. To examines the cyber Laws- legislations, judicial attitude and other remedial measures to prevent cyber-crime.

Research Methodology

The Present exploration is descriptive in nature. In this paper an attempt has been taken to analyze cyber-crime against women in India. The present study is purely meaningful to increase the knowledge and awareness of concerned topic. The Paper explains freedom of speech, legal principles and legal rights of women regarding to access internet.  There is a higher ratio of women victimization as compared to men. The analysis described four specific concept concerning cyber-crimes. First, the root-causes for that includes easy victimization of women and new trends of victimization of women. Second, patterns of women victimizations through cyber-space means the cyber approach towards the productions of cybercrime against women. Third, cyber laws- legislations and judicial attitude, and fourth or last, remedial measures to prevent cyber-crime.

Definition of Cyber Crime

Cybercrimes can be identified as an illegal behaviour directed by means of electronic operations that target the security of computer systems and the data processed by them. Cybercrime in a broader sense are computer-related crimes: any illegal behaviour committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, including such crimes as illegal possession and offering or distributing information by means of a computer system or network.[2] Computer-crime has two elements, computer and crime. Therefore, it involves a crime in a relationship with computer.[3] A simple yet sturdy definition of cybercrime would be unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or a target or both. “Computer abuse is considered as any illegal, unethical or unauthorized behaviour related to the automatic processing and transmission of data.”[4]

Root-Causes of Easy Victimization of Women

Gender Identities

Women sustain harm to their identities as a female. Women may feel impelled to compromise their female identity by “passing” as men to prevent discrimination. Female bloggers and commentators assume gender-disguising names to prevent cyber harassment. Even individuals who present themselves as women may nonetheless feel forced to “cover,” i.e., engage in stereotypically male conduct, to avoid online abuse. Women play down stereotypically female attributes, such as compassion, and high- light stereotypically male ones, such as aggressiveness, to deflect cyber assaults. (2).Cyber gender harassment undermines women’s ability to achieve their professional goals. It may impair women’s work directly such as technological attacks designed to shutter feminist websites and to discourage employees from hiring women. It may take a more indirect form of professional sabotage by discrediting women’s competence in their careers.[5]

Fear of Defamation in Society

Most of the cybercrimes with women as victims remain unreported due to the hesitancy and shyness, her fear of defamation of family’s name. Many times she considers that she herself is accountable for the crime done to her. The women are more helpless to the threat of cybercrime as the perpetrator’s identity remains anonymous and he may constantly threaten and blackmail the victim with different names and identities. Due to these fears women often fail to report the crimes, causing the spirits of culprits to get even higher.[6]

Lack of Proper Universal and Domestic Laws to Address the Problem of Cyber-Attacks on Women

The information communication and technology (ICT) act was passed in 2006 and amended in 2013 with the aim of implementing the National and Communication Technology Policy 2002. The policy was taken in 2002 to draw attention for legislation to protect against cybercrimes and to ensure the security of data and freedom of information. Though the Act was enacted to protect the cyber victims but it doesn’t cover the whole things of cybercrimes. Nowadays, women are frequently harassed over the internet or through mobile phones. Regrettably, there is no comprehensive law adequately dealing with sexual harassment in social media and other digital platforms, albeit cases can be filed under the Women and Children Repression Prevention Act, 2000, the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Act, 2006, and the Pornography Control Act, 2012 or any other ordinary laws but the main problems is lack of sufficient machinery and lack of implementation the laws and legislature.[7]

Growing Popularity of the Multipurpose Social Networking Site (MPSNSs) for Forming Relationships

Facebook, Twitter, and Google-hosted social networking sites Google+ and YouTube have become imperative to our lives reason due to the craze and popularity of users. As has been stated above, MPSNSs provide a wide range of platforms for multitasking. The majority of users avail Facebook for forming relationships of various natures. The relationships thus formed may not abide by the settled rules and regulations restricting the human mind. Sharing real-life tragedies (how trivial they may be) through status messages may immediately attract a pool of supporters in the MPSNS, and these supporters and friends may also motivate the user to take action that they feel is absolutely right.[8]

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Lack of Awareness by Female Users

One of the major reasons for the growth of sexual crimes in the Multipurpose Social Networking Sites (MPSNSs) is the lack of awareness of female users, who are the potential victims. As has been stated above, the majority of sexual crimes may happen when the victim herself allows the perpetrator to either access her private information or communicate with her. Many victims refuse to stop communication with the perpetrator or delete the profile information when attacked. Further, once victimized, many women victims and parents of minor victims immediately sought to contact the hackers to remove the offending posts or write back to the offender threatening him with terrible consequences. This irrational coping mechanism only leads to further victimization, as this helps the perpetrator to escalate the harassment.[9]

Benevolent Behaviour of Women

In this way, the user may either become the victim of groomers if the user is a woman, generate sympathy by sharing details about the ex-partner, colleague, and so on, who may be further targeted by such supporters. Similarly, in the case of online relationships, trivial disagreements can be published, and if the disagreement arises against a woman it leaves her literally stripped in public. In this way, when the fake avatars are created, the user may get another group of supporters who may start liking the fake avatar for the sexual contents and thus increase the embarrassment of the victim. Facebook itself has confessed that many of the user profiles are fake. This boosts the perpetrator to continue with the wrongdoing.[10]

Patriarchal Society and Prejudice

The prevalence of patriarchy and prejudice is regarded as the most imperative in leading to the subordinate status of women. This system has been prevalent within the Indian society, since medieval times. The status of women was recognized to be merely in the implementation of household responsibilities, child development, paying attention to health care and in taking care of the needs and requirements of the elderly family members. They were not allowed to express their perspectives and viewpoints in the making of decisions or render an active participation in any religious, cultural, social, or political activities. They were required to follow the norms and instructions that have been put into operation by the male members. Patriarchal societies in most parts of the country give preference to the male children and discriminate against the girl children. Due to patriarchy and prejudice, girls and women are deprived of nutrition, health care, education and employment. They have no more options to learn modern education, skill and technology.[11]

Unsupportable Behaviour of Police and Administration

 The police usually uses the following grounds for refusing to take a complaint:

  1. There is no specific proof to show that the harasser has been actually indicating the particular victim, even if he had used her name in the defamatory write-ups.
  2. The harasser has been practicing his right to speech. The police cannot curtail anyone’s right to speech without solid evidence.[12]

Moreover some another reasons to easily victimizations of women can be no minimum age to join cyber communities like Facebook, Orkut, Myspace, Instagram, allow others to use one’s own emails id, profile id password etc., ignorance to use safety tips like filtering emails, locking personal albums and information, personal walls of social network sites, share personal information, emotions with virtual friends, chat room patterns etc. whom you don’t know in real life, ignoring policy guidelines of social networking sites ISPs etc.

Patterns of Women Victimizations through Cyber-Space

Cyber-crime is categorized in accordance to a tool, equipment, mechanism or means through which it was committed.

Creation of Fake Avatar of Women

Sexual crimes against women in the Multipurpose Social Networking Site (MPSNSs) may happen mostly through creation of fake avatars of the victims by the harassers. Halder (2013) defines fake avatars as a false representation of the victim which is created by the perpetrator through digital technology with or without the visual images of the victim and which carry verbal information about the victim which may or may not be fully true and it is created and floated in the internet to intentionally harm he character of the victim and to mislead the viewers about the victim’s original identity. As the definition suggests, fake avatars can be created either by verbal description of the characteristics of the victim in group discussions in the MPSNSs, or by creating a different profile of the fake avatar with the images and information to malign the character of the victim.[13]

Sending Sexual Messages

While creation of a fake avatar can be one of the most used ways to sexually victimize women, the other sexual crime that can take place in the Multipurpose Social Networking Site (MPSNSs) is sending sexual messages to the victim. This can take place by three distinct methods: (a) grooming the women for sexual crime purposes, (b) chatting in the MPSNSs, and (c) bullying. The comments may be posted targeting the victim in open forums with an intention that the other group members can directly see the sexually abusive posts.[14]

Cyber-Aided Sexual Violence against Women

Halder and Jaishankar (2011) pointed out that MPSNSs like Facebook, Orkut, and others can also become platforms to create cyber-aided sexual violence against women (p. 34). Facebook also provides opportunity for friends as well as close friends to tag a user to any place, picture, or status message, and by this the user’s information can be viewed by others who are not friends with the user. In Twitter, similarly, status updates and personal information can be limited to followers if the user wishes to keep the profile private and limited only to those followers. But if the user wishes to open her information to the World Wide Web, neither Facebook nor Twitter restricts any individual from accessing and viewing the primary information. Given these facts, the user becomes susceptible to physical violence as well as online abuse with the cyber aid.[15]

Cyber Stalking

Cyber Stalking basically is behaviour wherein an individual willfully and repeatedly engages in a knowing course of harassing conduct directed at another person which reasonably and seriously fears nuisances or threatens that person. This is one of the most talked about internet crimes in the modern world. Cyber stalking involves following a person’s movements across the Internet by posting messages, sometimes threatening on the bulletin boards frequented by the victim, entering the chat-rooms frequented by the victim, constantly bombarding the victim with emails etc. Cyber Stalking usually occurs with women, who are stalked by men. Cyber stalkers target and harass their victims via websites, chat rooms, discussion forums, open publishing websites and email. The motivation of stalkers may be considered for four reasons; sexual harassment, obsession for love, revenge and hate, ego and power trips.[16]

Cyber Defamation

Cyber tort including libel and defamation is another common crime against women in the net. This occurs when defamation takes place with the help of computers and or the Internet. The very first instance of cyber defamation in India was recorded in the case of SMC Pneumatics (India) Pvt. Ltd. v. JogeshKwatra-Jogesh Kwatra[17]cyber defamation was reported when a company’s employee (defendant) started sending derogatory, defamatory and obscene e-mails about its Managing Director. The e-mails were anonymous and frequent, and were sent to many of their business associates to tarnish the image and goodwill of the plaintiff company. The plaintiff was able to identify the defendant with the help of a private computer expert and moved the Delhi High Court. The court granted an ad-interim injunction and restrained the employee from sending, publishing and transmitting e-mails, which are defamatory or derogatory to the plaintiffs.

Morphing

Morphing is editing the original picture so as to make it look completely or largely different. Often criminally minded elements of the cyber world download pictures of girls from websites such as Facebook and then morph it with another picture in compromising situation so as to represent that those women were indulging in such acts. Often the next step after this is to blackmail those women through the threat of releasing the morphed images and diminishing the status of those women in society.[18]

The recent Air Force Balbharati School case (Delhi) 2013 comes under this category where a student of the School was teased by all his classmates for having a pockmarked face. Tired of the cruel jokes, he decided to get back at his tormentors and scanned photograph of his classmates and teachers, morphed them with nude photographs and put them up on a website that he uploaded on to a free web hosting service. The father of one of the class girls featured on the website came to know about this and lodged a complaint with the police. Such acts can be penalized under I.T. Act, 2000 and attracts sec. 43 & 66 of the said Act. The violator can also be booked under IPC sec 509 also.[19]

Email Spoofing

E-mail spoofing is a term used to describe fraudulent email activity in which the sender’s address and other parts of the email header are altered to appear as though the email originated from a different source; it is done by properties of the email, such as the From, Return-Path and Reply-To fields, ill-intentioned users can make the email appear to be from someone other than the actual sender. This method is often used by cyber criminals to extract personal information and private images from unsuspecting women, these images are then used to blackmail those women.[20] The most popular case of cyber spoofing is Gujarat Ambuja’s Executive Case (1998) AIR 2000 MP 194, 2000 (2) MPHT 112 where the perpetrator pretended to be a girl for cheating and blackmailing the Abu Dhabi based NRI.

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Cyber Blackmailing

In this the sender demands something to recipient, otherwise sender promises to reveal her private information/ portray her in false manner/ do harm to her reputation etc.[21]

Cyber Hate Propaganda

Means offensive communication between sender and multiple recipients with intend to spread hatred against a particular individual for her opinion, race, gender etc. One more cyber-crime against the women like cyber grooming, cyber bullying, forced pornography, obscenity and offensive communication etc.[22]

Cyber Laws- Legislations and Judicial Attitude

Women in cyberspace do not enjoy the same level and types of desirable privacy that men do. Working with computers, making use of mobile devices to connect to the Internet and exchange data, are now daily occurrences. Cyberspace has changed the way how users access information and establish connections, and this has greatly influenced our work, communications and social interactions. Of course, at the same time the data and other contents are transferred into cyberspace, so are various forms of cybercrime. New cybercrimes are emerging, for example those connected with social networks, because “the extent of personal information that the individuals exchange and publish on the Internet is increasing rapidly, particularly with the increasing popularity of social networks. Cyber-stalking, Harassment via e-mails, Cyber Bullying, Morphing, Email spoofing, Cyber Defamation also have a protective laws and legislation. The question of how well the user is aware of the damage suffered in cyberspace means in real life. This situation is the result of a lack of knowledge in certain areas, which is in turn due to the fact that information technology is now available to anyone. In further research we will compare fear of cybercrime in other areas, and try to find out how the perception of cyber threats, and thus fear of cybercrime, can be minimized through the education of users.[23]

Indian law sexual harassment has newly been defined under the Criminal Law Amendment (Bill) 2013 as physical contact and advances involving unwelcomed and explicit sexual overtures; a demand or request for sexual favors, making sexually colored remarks, forcibly showing pornography, any other unwelcomed physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct of sexual nature. Sections 67 A and 67 B of the IT act provides sexual harassment in respect of offences of publishing or transmitting of material containing sexually explicit act and child pornography in electronic form, in the cyber world harassment including blackmailing, threatening, bullying, and even cheating is often done through e-mailing. Email harassment is very similar to harassing through letters; however, it is greatly difficult to crackdown upon the culprits of crime in cyber harassment as often people create fake identities on internet for such purposes.[24]

Ritu Kohlicase was first cyber-sex crime which was reported in India. In this case one Manish Kathuria was arrested by officials of crime branch of Delhi Police for stalking an Indian lady Ms. Ritu Kohli by illegally chatting on website “MIRC” using her name. He used obscene and obnoxious language and distributed her residence telephone numbers, inviting people to chat with her on phone. As a result of this, Ritu kept getting obscene calls from everywhere. In a state of shock, she called the Delhi police and reported the matter. The police promptly swung into action, traced the culprit and started criminal proceedings against him under sec 67 of IT Act read with sec 509 of IPC for outraging Ritu Kohli’s modesty.[25]

State of Tamil Nadu vs. Suhas Katti, (decided by, Add. CMM, Egmore, Chennai on 5/11/2004) in the present case emails were forwarded to the victim (a divorcee woman) for information by accused through false email account opened by him in her name. The posting of messages resulted in mental harassment to the victim as annoying phone calls were coming to her in the brief that was soliciting. She therefore, filed a complaint in the Egmore Court in Feb 2004 and the Chennai police cyber cell arrested the accused. He was accused under sec 469/509 IPC and sec 67 of IT Act, 2000. Charges were proved against him and he was booked under the above mentioned sections.[26]

Unlike other crimes like Cyber Stalking, Cyber Defamation, Morphing, Email Spoofing, Cyber Pornography is considered an exceptional case which has been covered by the IT Act 2000 to a certain extent by Section 67 of the IT Act 2000. Along with IT Act the perpetrator can be punished under various Sections of IPC (Section 290 for committing public nuisance, section 292 for sale of obscene books etc, and section 292A for printing or publishing grossly indecent or scurrilous matter or matter intended to blackmail, section 293 for sale etc of obscene objects to young persons and then section 294 for doing or composing, writing etc of obscene songs and finally under section 509 for outraging the modesty of women).[27]

The first conviction in a cyber-stalking case against a woman in Maharashtra took place in July 2015 in the case of Yogesh Prabhu v. State of Maharashtra, decided by the additional chief metropolitan magistrate M.R. Natu, the magistrate convicted Prabhu under section 509 IPC and section 66E of the Information Technology Act 2008 (Punishment for violation of privacy).[28]

In a case of defamation, the Delhi High Court in Imtiaz Ahmed v. Durdana Zamir (2009 SCC online Del 477: (2009) 109 DRJ 357: 2009 INDLAW Del 119.) held the test of defamatory nature of a statement is its tendency to incite an adverse opinion or feeling of other persons towards the plaintiff. A statement is to be judged by the standard of the ordinary, right thinking members of the society at the relevant time. The words must have resulted in the plaintiff to be shunned or evaded or regarded with the feeling of hatred, contempt, ridicule, fear, dislike or disrespect or to convey an imputation to him or disparaging him or his office, profession, calling, trade or business. The plaintiff in such a case has a right to be compensated in monetary term by the defendant. When one person sullies the good name of another out of inadvertence or the tort of defamation making the quinces, then it will amount to the tort of defamation making the defendant liable to pay damages as fixed by the court. The law related to the tort in India is still unmodified.[29]

The first ever conviction in India for cyber pornography, was in the case of Suhas Katti v. State of Tamil Nadu in 2004, The court held that Katti Punished with two years rigorous imprisonment and fine 500/- under section 469 IPC, one year’s simple imprisonment under section 509 of IPC and two years rigorous imprisonment and rupees four thousand fine for the offence Under Section 67 of IT ACT 2000 (Punishment for publishing or transmitting obscene material in electronic form).[30]

The objective of the IT Act is crystal clear from its preamble which confirms that it was formed largely for improving e-commerce hence it covers commercial or economic crimes i.e. hacking, fraud, and breach of confidentiality etc. but the drafters were unacquainted with the protection of net users, As we deliberated above that majority of cybercrimes are being prosecuted under Section 66 (Hacking), 67(publishing or transmitting obscene material in electronic form), 72(breach of confidentiality). The most of the cybercrimes other than e- commerce related crime are being dealt with these three sections. Cyber defamation, cyber defamation, email spoofing, cybersex, hacking and trespassing into one’s privacy is domain is very common now days but IT Act is not expressly mentioning them under specific Sections or provisions11. Whereas IPC, Criminal Procedure Code and Indian Constitution give special protection to women and children for instance modesty of women is protected under Section 509. Indian constitution guarantees equal right to live, education, health, food and work to women, however until recently there were no specific penal provisions protecting women specifically against internet crimes. Ever since the 2012 Delhi Gang Rape case (Nirbhaya Case) there has been a huge outcry over bringing out new reforms and penal provisions so as to protect women against the criminally minded. The 2013 Criminal Law Amendment Ordinance contains several additions to the Indian Penal Code, such as to sections 354, 354 A, 354 B, 354 C & 354 D, with the assistance of these sections now the issues of MMS scandals, pornography, morphing, defamation can be dealt in proper manner.[31]

As it has been discussed earlier that transcendental nature of Internet is one of the main reasons for the growth of cybercrime so whereas Section 75 of the IT Act deals with the offences or contravention committed outside India but it is not talking about the jurisdiction of the crimes committed in the cyberspace specially the question of place for reporting the case arises when the crime is committed in one place affected at another place and then reported at another place. Although in the most of the cases, for the matter of territorial jurisdiction Criminal Procedure Code is being followed.[32]

Other Remedial Measures to Prevent Cyber-Crime

Cyber security means protecting information, equipment, devices, computer, computer resources,

Communication device and information stored therein from unauthorized access, use, disclosure,

disruption, modification or destruction. (Section 2 (1) of the India Information Technology Act of 2000.)Security includes network security, data security and system security.

Tools for Cyber-Forensics

The tools of cyber-forensics can be divided into three different categories: detection tools, protection tools, and analysis tools.

Detection Tools

These are used to identify risks. They start with network-based tools, one of the most widely used is known as Nmap. One of the signature features for this tool is operating system detection through TCP/IP fingerprinting. Another tool is Nessus, a host-based tool that scans a given host for specific exploits. It is a vulnerability scanner with an excellent GUI front end. Retina is another excellent scanner. In real investigation scenarios a combination of more than one tool is used. For example, to audit a web server for vulnerability, one may first run Nmap, then Nessus, and then follow it with a scan.

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Protection Tools

Protection tools mitigate the risk that the detection tools identify. They mitigate this risk by increasing either network or host-based countermeasures accounted for in the initial risk formula. Routers, the devices that pass traffic to the correct location, typically form the first line of defense for a network. Firewalls form the second layer of defense in a secured network, and mitigate risk by acting as a sentry for the network and only allowing traffic through that is specifically permitted. Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) function as burglar alarms for a network by identifying malicious traffic based on signatures. Snort is a good example of such IDS systems. They mitigate risk through increased awareness and knowledge.

Analysis Tools

These tools are used to measure risk. They measure what an incident did and how it was done and what the consequences were. Examples of analysis tools include the Coroners toolkit that runs under NIX and EnCase that runs under Windows. The importance of a very strong technical ability to use these toolkits cannot be overemphasized. When dealing with cyber-forensics some requirements need to be met. These include a technical awareness through knowledge of the technical implications of actions, an understanding of how data can be modified, cleverness, open-mindedness, deviousness, a high standard of ethics, continuing education and the use of redundant data sources.[33]

Firewall Technology

Firewall is a blockade between the internal privately owned network such as intranet that is believed to be secured and an external network, such as internet which is not assumed to be secured. It does not only help to secure system from unauthorized access but also prevent an authorized communication with the network. They give alert and control all traffic that enters and leaves the internal network. Firewalls can provide some protection from online intrusion.[34]

Antivirus Software

Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify, detect, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software (malware). This began fifty years ago with the computer science pioneer and mathematician John Von Neumann. They scan the computer affected files, and either recover, repair, stored or delete them if necessary. They alert whenever there is a possible intrusion of virus and worms, and perform an action as programmed by the owner of the computer. They are running effectively when updated. This ensured the confidentiality, integrity of data transmitted through e-mails, for instance Pretty Good Privacy (PGP). They employ a technique known as data encryption which can also be viewed as a type of security measures. It converts the information in message composed in an ordinary text, into cipher text. The party received it, uses a key to transform it back to the original meaning. In this situation data can be secured.[35]

Conclusion

The combating of the Cyber-crime can be done generally in three ways: Sensitization and awareness between the users, Use of Prevention and Detection tools, combating by the method of strong law and legislatures. Victimized community should directly contribute to the experience regarding prevention of the cyber-crime because the criminal strategies are absolutely new and mysterious trends of victimization. Now need of some other gender related law those protect the common legal rights of women. Level of awareness of adult internet users of modern cyber cultures, Media interventions are the public awareness campaigns and other interventions delivered through television, radio, newspapers and other mass media. These can render an effective contribution in bringing about changes within the attitudes of the individuals towards gender norms. The media interventions are successful, when they seek to generate information in terms of the target audience.

Relevancy of the Paper

A Study examines the causes of easy victimizations of women, patterns of women victimizations through cyber-space, cyber laws- legislations and judicial attitude and also discusses the remedial measures for the preventions of cyber-crime. Women are generally unaware of the modern cyber-criminal strategies. This paper explores the term Public Awareness Programs, Cyber security Awareness, Cybercrime related law and legislature and enforcement criteria, consumer based Practices to use a modern Internet security, behavioral prevention that keeps malicious threats from executing even if they get onto your computer, women how to protect and keep up-to-date and update with latest viruses and malicious software? The paper suggested the security measures, preventive measures, ideas which combating with cyber-crime. 

Suggestions

To examine the trends of individual victimization, spread awareness about various trends of cyber victimization of internet users specially women and analyze the level of awareness about the victimization that occur in the cyber space. Know common legal principles and legal rights regarding internet crimes to exchange experiences in promoting and discuss the theoretical issues arising from the practice. To develop approach of computer education and online skills on women’s and empowerment for possible collaboration in selected areas. Ensure that passwords are a mix of letters and numbers, and change them often. Passwords should not consist of words from the dictionary, since these are easier for cybercriminals to hack. Do not use the same password for multiple applications or websites. Use complex passwords (upper/lowercase, punctuation and symbols) or passphrases. (e.g., “I want to go to Paris for my birthday” becomes, “I1t2g2P4mb”Consumer Best Practices Know what you are doing personal information you make publicly available on the Internet (including and especially social networks) as it may be harvested by cybercriminals and used in targeted attacks, phishing scams, or other malicious activities. Never disclose any confidential personal or financial information unless and until you can confirm that any request for such information is legitimate. Avoid banking or shopping online from public computers (such as libraries, Internet cafes, etc.) or from unencrypted Wi-Fi connections. Guard your personal data, never view, open, or execute any email attachment or click on a URL, unless you expect it and trust the sender.; even if it’s coming from trusted users, be suspicious. Do not click on shortened URLs without expanding them first using “preview” tools. Do not click on links in social media applications with catchy titles or phrases; you may end up “liking it” and sending it to all of your friends –just by clicking anywhere on the page. Be suspicious of warnings that pop-up asking you to install media players, document viewers and security updates; only download software directly from the vendor’s website.

Think before you click, never view, open, or execute any email attachment or click on a URL, unless you expect it and trust the sender, even if it’s coming from trusted users, be suspicious. Do not click on shortened URLs without expanding them first using “preview” tools.


[1]  Debarati Halder & K. Jaishankar, (2010), Cyber Victimization in India: A Baseline Survey Report, Centre for Cyber Victim Counselling (CCVC) (November 19, 2019), 10.2139/ssrn.1759708.

[2]   H.V. Milner, The Political Economy of International Trade, Annual Review of Political Science, 2 (1999).

[3]  C.J. Magnin, An Efficient Tool to Fight Crime in Cyber-space?, The Council of Europe Convention on Cyber Crime, (2001).

[4] Suresh T. Vishwanathan, The Crime Aspects in Cyber Law, The Indian Cyber Law, Bharat Law House (P) Ltd., 81 (2001).

[5] Danielle Keats Citron, Law’s Expressive Value in Combating Cyber Gender Harassment, 108(3) Michigan Law Review, 373-415 (Dec., 2009).

[6]  Yogesh Bama, Criminal Activities in Cyber-word 36, (Dominent Pubhshers and Distributers, New Delhi, 2005)

[7] R.K. Choubey, An Introduction to cyber-crime & cyber law. 123, (ed-2008, Kama! Law House, Kolkata, 2009)

[8] Debarati Halder and K. Jaishankar, Patterns of Sexual Victimization of Children and Women in the Multipurpose Social Networking Sites, (2014);  Catherine D.Marcum and George E. Higgins, Social Networking as a Criminal Enterprises, CRC Press,138.

[9] Ibid p. 139.

[10] S.V.  Rao Joga,  Law of Cyber Crimes & Information Technology Law 85, (Wadhwa, Nagpur India, 2004)

[11] TalatFatima, Cyber Crimes 58, (Eastern Book Company, Lucknow, 2011).

[12] J.P. Mishra 77, (Central Law Publications, Allahabad, India, 2014).

[13]  Debarati Halder and K. Jaishankar, Patterns of Sexual Victimization of Children and Women in the Multipurpose Social Networking Sites, (2014); Catherine D. Marcum and George E. Higgins, Social Networking as a Criminal Enterprises 134, (CRC Press).

[14]  Ibid., 135

[15]  Inder S. Rana, Law of obscenity in India 96, (Mittal Publications, New Delhi, 1990).

[16] J.P. Mishra 191, (Central Law Publications, Allahabad, India, 2014).

[17]  Free legal Advice – lawyers Forum, (July 30, 2013), http:// www. legalserviceindia. com/
    lawforum/

[18] Sandeep Gupta, Hacking in the Computer World 99, (Mittal Publications, New Delhi, 2007).

[19]  Air Force Bal Bharti School & Anr. vs Delhi School Tribunal & Ors.

[20]  N.C. Jain, Cyber Crime 86, (Allahabad Law Agency, Faridabad, 2008).

[21]  https://www.arabianbusiness.com/dubai-cyber-blackm.

[22]  http://www.internationalhatestudies.com/cyber-hate-initiatives-3/

[23]  M. Dimc and B. Dobovsek, Perception of cyber-crime in Slovenia, Varstvoslovje, 4 Journal of Criminal Justice and Security, 378-396 (2010).

[24]  Debarati Halder and k. Jai Shankar, Cyber Crimes against Women in India 231, (Sage publications, New Delhi, 2017).

[25] The Hindustan Times, New Delhi (2003).

[26] Vishi Aggarwal and Ms. Shruti, Cybercrime Victims: A Comprehensive Study, International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts (IJCRT) www.ijcrt.org 647, IJCRT1807078.

[27]  Nadan Kamath, Law relating to Computes, Internet and E-commerce 116, (Universal Law Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2008).

[28] Prasanto k Roy, Why Online Harassment Goes Unpunished in India, (15 March 2015), http://www.b bc.com/ews/world-asia-india-33532706.

[29]  Talat Fatima, Cyber Crimes 147-148, (Eastern Book company, Lucknow, 2016).

[30]  CC no. 4680 of 2004.

[31] Anant D. Chinchure, Cyber (Computer) Crimes- A Conceptual Analysis, Criminal Law Journal (Nov. 2014).

[32] Abhimanyu Behera, Cyber Crimes and Law in India, XXXI, IJCC 19 (2010).

[33] Nilkund Aseef , Pamela Davis and Manish Mittal, Cyber-Criminal Activity and Analysis (2005).

[34] Herman T. Tavani, Ethics and Technology, Ethical Issues in an Age of Information and Communication
    Technology 183, (2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2007).

[35] Ibid, 185.