The Regime of Goods and Services Tax in India

Introduction to Goods and Services Tax

Introduction of the Goods and Services Tax is an important reform and is a standard policy recommendation. The genuine trial of GST lies in the way it is actualized. There is sufficient proof grouped by worldwide financial research bodies which proposes that nations which actualized a fairly defective Goods and Services Tax finished with nearly nothing or no benefit as far as higher monetary development and lower expansion. Truth be told the expansion rate went up in the medium term as a lot of new administrations and merchandise, up to this point untaxed, started to be burdened, along these lines harming the shoppers. If a standard GST rate of 18% is imposed on all way of administrations such as training, wellbeing, development contracts, eateries and a large group of online administrations to customers, the typical cost for basic items would go up as administrations frame a solid part of the Consumer Price Index.

Also, India is a center point for little business to business online programming specialist co-ops. They will all go under the new GST impose administration, expanding the cost of business in the administration area. In any case, GST will likewise bring down the expenses in the assembling division where existing duties are as of now high. GST will carry more straightforwardness into the framework and upgrade intensity and in addition proficiency of the assembling part and its general administration. Usage of GST would make a level playing field for residential makers and help them to contend better with their worldwide partners. GST would help producers in getting to consistent credit over the whole production network. In this manner, from the above exchange, we can state there should be gainers and washouts both in the GST administration. Be that as it may, just a well-planned GST is the most ideal approach to dispose of mutilations of the existing procedure of various tax assessment. In this manner, all expenses on products and ventures required by Central and state governments ought to be incorporated under GST.

GST bill in the Indian economy

GST stands for “Goods and Services Tax”. It is proposed to be a comprehensive indirect tax levy on produce, deal, and utilization of merchandise and administrations at the national level. It will replace all backhanded charges exacted on merchandise and services by the Central Government and State Governments. In India, the proposed GST would be implemented from 1st April 2016. For this purpose 122nd constitution amendment bill is passed in the Lok Sabha, but still pending for approval in the Rajya Sabha. The GST is a tax reform that has been on the cards for more than a decade. In principle, it is the same as the Value-added Tax (VAT) already adopted by all Indian States but with a wider base. While the VAT which replaced the sales tax was imposed only on goods, the GST will be a VAT on goods and services. In the current tax regime, States tax sale of goods but not services. The Centre taxes manufacturing and services but not wholesale or retail trade. The GST is expected to usher in a uniform tax regime across India through an expansion of the base of each into the other’s territory.

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GST was first introduced in France in 1954[1]. Today it has spread to over 150 countries. GST is of two types: (a) Single GST and (b) Dual GST. Many countries have unified GST. In India, due to the federal structure, there shall be a dual GST system. This will comprise of Central GST (CGST) which is levied by the Centre, State GST (SGST) which is levied by the State, Integrated GST (IGST) which is levied by the Central Government on an inter-state supply of goods and services. Despite the success with the VAT, there is still certain shortcoming in the structure of VAT both at the Central and at the State level. GST has been designed to overcome from all shortcomings of VAT because GST is not simply VAT plus service tax but an improvement over the previous system of the VAT and disjointed service tax. The mechanics of applying VAT and GST are basically the same. But there are some fundamental differences between them like VAT is levied on goods, whereas GST on both goods and services as it is evident from the name, GST would have a uniform rate in all the states which VAT lacks as each state levies its own rate of duty for each good, input credit can be set-off only against the goods sold within the state in case of VAT, whereas in case of GST not only you can set-off input credit against goods sold within the country but also against the services.

Like every coin has two sides, even GST will probably have its own positives and negative impacts. Let us first look at the possible positive impacts of GST. The GST, by subsuming an array of indirect taxes under one rubric, will simplify tax administration, improve compliance and eliminate economic distortions in production, trade, and consumption. Second, by giving credit for taxes paid on inputs at every stage of the supply chain and taxing only the final consumer avoids the ‘cascading’ of taxes, thereby cutting production cost and making exports more competitive. In the other words the GST is designed as a value-added tax, which means starting from the manufacturer to the wholesaler and the retailer, each person will pay tax only on the value addition done by him? So, suppose a manufacturer purchases inputs worth Rs. 40 and then produces a good worth Rs. 100, then with a 10 % GST rate, his tax liability will turn out to be only Rs. 6 (10 % of 60). This is because he gets to set-off the tax paid on the inputs against the tax he pays on the final goods produced. This will reduce the final price for the consumer. Consider another example to understand this positive impact on the final price of the product: IGST, the combination of CGST and SGST will make efficient logistic tax system. It will solve the warehousing obsession problem of the previous tax system. Also in the present tax system to reduce Burden of cascading, companies try the in-house production of components required for the final product. But after implementing GST, credit on input will be given and cascading effect of tax will be reduced. So outsourcing and subcontracting will increase. It will help in increasing employment. This will indirectly help to increase tax collection. In GST due to same base computation overall price of the product will be reduced due to an overall reduction in tax. Export will be zero-rated because exporters will get credit for GST paid on inputs. But they have to sell the product with bill else no credit will be given. This will prevent tax evasion.

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Challenges and recommendations

As everything has its pros and cons, there are still some challenges in implementing GST.

  • First is a high revenue neutral rate (RNR). As it will combine CGST (13%) and SGST (14%), due to high RNR domestic industries will be ruined, also purchasing power will be reduced. To avoid this problem exempted items such as petroleum, electricity; stamps must be included in GST.
  • A direct tax is the source of center’s major collection whereas VAT, cess, and surcharge are major sources of state collection. So states will lose their tax collection in a significant manner. Union has decided to compensate affected states for first five years. Finance Commission recommended GST compensation fund with tapering effect for the same.
  • Database management for GSTN ltd. (Goods and service tax network) is also a challenging task. According to IMF dual rate taxation will be a complex system since the union has to coordinate with twenty-nine states. India will have not a single federal GST but a dual GST levied and managed by a different administration.
  • The Centre will administer the CGST and the States will administer SGST. The monitoring of compliance will also be done independently at the two levels. The rates for both, the CGST and the SGST will be fixed by the GST Council, whose members will be State finance ministers and chairman will be the Union finance minister. Once the rates are set by the GST Council, individual States will lose their right to tax whichever commodities they want at the rates they want.


In GST System both Central GST and State GST will be charged on manufacturing cost and tax will be collected on point of sale. This will benefit people as prices will come down which in turn will help companies as consumption will increase. The biggest benefit will be that multiple taxes like central sales tax, state sales tax, entry tax, license fees, turnover tax etc. will no longer be present and all that will be brought under the GST.

  • It will bring about a decent organization of tax structure. There will be a basic, straightforward and simple assessment structure, blending all duties on products and ventures into one GST.
  • It will expand the duty base. Focus and state government will profit by an increment in charge accumulation because of the enlarging of the assessment base. GST will help in better congruity and income flexibility.
  • GST will bring about cost intensity of merchandise and enterprises in the Global market. Consequently, giving India a focused edge on the planet showcase.
  • It will lessen exchange costs for citizens through disentangled expense consistency.
  • It will support up monetary unification of India
  • Uniform rates of expenses, will lead to fewer perplexities and encounters and accordingly diminish tax litigation.
  • IT created for GST entries would make less demanding the procedure of tax collection, return documenting and GST installment crosswise over India.
  • Integration of merchandise and enterprises tax assessment would end the long-standing bends of differential medicines of assembling an administration part. Along these lines, GST is required to enhance assembling and conveyance effectiveness
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With GST actualized, a business premise can demonstrate the tax connected in the sales receipt. A client will know precisely how much duty they are paying on the item they purchased or benefits they expended.


  • VAT and Service tax on some products may be higher than the current levels. A rise in overall prices has been experienced in many countries when GST is implemented.
  • Most of the developed economies use a single GST and not a dual GST. A dual system in India will be very complicated.
  • Since the mechanism is still complicated, it cannot completely eliminate black money and tax evasion.
  • In a country like India, with huge inequalities of income, a uniform tax rate would spell disaster for small businesses which are exempt from tax in the current regime, leading to their eventual shutdown.
  • GST will apply to all industries thus, making it difficult for numerous small-scale industries that under the previous tax regime were exempt from excise tax if their turnover did not exceed 1.5 crores.

Steps Ahead

There is some concern that the incomes from GST in a previous couple of months are fairly underneath desires. Things could enhance the new changes acquire security and innovation stage balances out. Ideally, the execution of GST may help in increasing wage impose too.

Strong political commitment, to executing the change, careful propel arrangement, sufficient interest in charge organization and citizen administrations, broad state-funded instruction program, bolster from the business group and great planning of change are the imperative pre-requirements for fruitful usage of the GST. It is additionally critical to take note of that issues of progress to a noteworthy duty changes are unavoidable and most nations experience this. In such manner, the approach of the GST Council must be lauded for being open to the worries of organizations and in managing the glitches in innovation. A portion of the commotion heard is additionally because of the way that all dealers, in one way or the other, are brought into the formal part. That damages a few. The GST Council has perceived that it needs to precisely adjust the change until the point when the coveted objective of a Good and Simple Tax is figured it out. Ideally, the GST Council will keep the objectives clear and consider the change exertion as a work in advance.


Introduction of the Goods and Services Tax in India is a welcoming move but more or less it depends on how the concept of GST is implemented by the states and how correctly followed by the taxpayers. Seeing and analyzing the dissilient nature of the Indian economy introduction of GST was needed. With the increase of consumption and production of goods and services each passing day, management of different kinds of taxes it was becoming difficult to keep a track. And hence a more simplified system is not only user-friendly but gives a transparent look to the government. As discussed above there are still several challenges to be faced and need more analytical research but the overall decision is in the interest of everyone.

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